The Early Adopters: Seed and Development of Democracy

Democracy and Greece are strongly related, the first form of democracy was first introduced in Ancient Greece. Greece history can be retrieved from 2,500 years ago (500-336 BCE). Ancient Greece was the first country to introduce the democratic system of government. Athena and Sparta did not follow the mainstream system rather they introduced new system of government “democracy”. While at that time, most of countries adopted the kingdom system of government. In this research, the history of Ancient Greece will be discussed while at the same time how this history connects with the rise of “democracy” will be discussed as well.

History of Ancient Greece

  • The existence of people of Kykladen was nearly 5,000 years ago (3,000-1,000 BCE)
  • People of Kretis or Minois entered Kreta 2,600-1,200 BCE and they ended because of Volcano.
  • The arrival of Mykene culture around 1,600-1,200 BCE.
  • Geometric time around 1,200-800 BCE.
  • Arkhais time (Greece dark time) around 800-500 BCE.
  • Time of war with Persia around 500-336 BCE.
  • Hellenistic epics around 336-145 BCE.
  • Time of the Roman nation around 146 BCE – 330 CE
  • Period of Byzantine 330-1453 CE

 

Athena and Sparta

At ancient time, Greece was a strong and important nation at the Mediterranean Sea for around 2,000 BCE – 200 CE. Their glory time was referred as ancient/classic time in 500-400 BCE. The important date that influenced the development of European civilization was between 800-146 BCE, it was when Greece was part of the Romans. Continue reading

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The Islamic Conceptual of Inheritance: Discrimination to Women?

Treasure and property are thorny problems that not easy to be solved. Lot of blood is wasted to gain property due to human nature that never satisfies until his/her mouth are full of sand of the grave, which is until death overtakes them.

There is a claim that posits inheritance law in context saying that on the bottom line the law is just in the context of the advent of Islam but not in the modern world. However, it is worth to note that in Islam the inheritance law is explained thoroughly in the Quran compared to other commands such as praying, giving alms, fasting, and pilgrimaging that mostly are globally explained.

In the Quran, there is verse that explains the right of women to be half of the men. “For the male, what is equal to the share of two females” (Quran, 4:11). However, that is not the main criterion in deciding the inheritance. In Islam the share of inheritance does not weigh on different gender. On the contrary the inheritance depends on 3 things: First, the Continue reading

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The Stairs of Family: A Foundation of Happy Family

 

The term “Family” (in Indonesian, keluarga) comes from the Sanskritic language which means kin group. Family as a social unity formed by the bonding between husband and wife as well as their children. Family is the only condition that is known by children whether pre-birth or post-birth.

Household (in Indonesian, rumah tanggaI) means literally the house-stairs have very deep meaning which means in order for family to reach tranquility, they have to overcome every single steps of the stairs. There is hope that every single year the family takes, it will eventually lead them to the top of the stairs which mean overcoming all the phases of the family stages.

Like a hiker, husband and wife will go through many phases that they need to overcome in order to reach the pinnacle of happiness, which is understanding each other and find the tranquility. The stairs mentioned earlier and the analogy of hiking have related to some steps such as obligation to God, family, carrier, relative and kin surrounded the wife and husband. Continue reading

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Status of Non-Muslims under Islamic State

Non-Muslims that live under Islamic state will be treated as the Muslims are, according to Sharia. Their rights as a citizen are fully guaranteed under Islamic state. However, they have to respect and follow the civil code that has been established in the state. Some of the common treatments are as follows;

Islam does not force non-Muslims to adhere to Islam as a religion. Islam will not suppress their liturgy. Islam also let them to live peacefully alongside the Muslims as long as they do not hate and oppose the Muslims.

Non-Muslims that live in the Islamic state aka Dhimmy are treated justly as the Muslims are treated. Their blood and property are safe just like the property and the blood of Muslims. Even the prophet Muhammad mentioned in hadith that whoever hurts the Dhimmy, as if they are hurting the Muslims. Continue reading

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Dialogue on religion, nationalism in Turkey

Amid the heat and chaos in Turkey after the Saturday bombs that killed four people, Indonesians gathered in Istanbul to raise awareness of terrorism and radicalism by holding a dialogue about religion and nationalism under the title “Islam and current conditions in Turkey and Indonesia”.

As a speaker, the Indonesian ambassador in Turkey came to share his views. Mr. Wardana said that in the last few years, Indonesians’ tendency to join radical group Daesh has increased. They were mostly trapped by big economic incentives with high salaries.
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Indonesians in Turkey

The Islamic State (IS) group has been discussed in the media in recent months. The group has actively promoted their movement through social media by posting videos and this movement has attracted many sympathizers across the world.

About 300 Indonesians, according to President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo, have links with this group.

Last week, 16 Indonesian travelers went missing in Istanbul separated from their tourist group. There are suspected of trying to join IS. However, the allegation has not been proven.

Many Indonesian students in Turkey have been trying to carry out research on the issue and keeping in touch with officials at the Indonesian embassy and consulates. Continue reading

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Happiness

It is nearly the end of Ramadan. A lot of people intense their prayer in mosques. However a lot of people are busy preparing to visit back their hometown. They seem busy packing their stuffs
and souvenirs as presents for their family. The situation becomes crowded. The market makes
big discounts. They are food on sale, handicrafts on sale, and mainly clothes on sale. People here like to wear new clothes for the Feast Day. They may buy clothes for their selves or they may give it to their family as well. The streets are so crowded in the end of Ramadan. People use cars or public buses to go back to their hometown. The media and authorities warn to be careful during their way back.

However, before the Feast Day, people clean their houses by sweeping the floor and cleaning the windows. They think the house must be very clean before the happiness day. And for the feast day, they would make many food, such as baklava (Turkish sweet) and yaprak dolmasi (traditional food made of spinach). Continue reading

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